The present research was carried out to investigate the prevalence of head lice and related effective features among students in primary schools of Ahvaz County; Iran; to suitable training programs via improve the health promotion of the students in this county during winter 2016 and spring 2017. The sample size was 5930 students that was determined by using a single population proportion formula. In this analytical-descriptive study, samples were selected by a multistep, classification random sampling strategy. The data was collected in two parts, a carefully visual examination of the hair and scalp with head lice comb, and an interview to complete a questionnaire about epidemiologic factors. The collected data was evaluated using SPSS software, version 22. These data were compared using a Chi-square analysis, and a p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. The overall head lice infestation rate in the studied population was 26.3%. The prevalence rate was 15.2% in the boys and 37.9% in the girls, while the rate of infestation was 25.1% in the urban areas and 36.9% in the villages. Also, a statistical significant relationship was observed between Pediculosis capitis and gender, geographical area, type of home, access to tap water, hygiene bath at home, bath times per week, the number of family individuals, sleeping in the common bedroom, use common bedding, daily comb, use common comb, use common towel, use common scarf, history of infestation, presence health educator in school, access to primary health services, knowledge about head lice, infestation in the family, performing personal hygiene, itching on the head and hair style, length, density, and color. The high prevalence of head lice among students in the majority of primary schools in Ahvaz County is attributable to inadequate access to health educators, sanitation facilities, inattention to personal health, and other related factors. The controlling program must be done more efficiently to prevent the prevalence of head lice infestation. It is suggested that the people’s knowledge and attitude about biology, clinical presentation, prevention, and treatment strategies of pediculosis capitis should be improved.Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 May;28(18):22577-22587. doi: 10.1007/s11356-020-12284-9. Epub 2021 Jan 9. From: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33420692/.